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       Praseodymium is a chemical element, symbol Pr and atomic number 59.

Praseodymium is a silver gray metal from the rare earth group. It is part of the lanthanide family. At room temperature, it is ductile, malleable and oxidizes slowly in air. It is stored in mineral oil because it reacts strongly with water.

Its name comes from the Greek words prason (ЦάҦϦ - "leek") and didymos (ίĦԦ̦ς - "twin"), due to the green color of its nitrate.

Chemists have long believed that the mixture of praseodymium-neodymium oxide was a single body until Carl Auer von Welsbach separated them in 1885.
Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal from the lanthanide group. It is a little more resistant to corrosion in air than europium, lanthanum, cerium and neodymium but it produces a green layer of weakly adherent oxide which bursts when exposed to air5. The metal is thus exposed again to oxidation. In general, therefore, the praseodymium is stored under oil or in sealed ampoules.

Unlike other rare earth metals which are shown to be antiferromagnetic and / or ferromagnetic at low temperatures, Pr is paramagnetic at any temperature above 1 K.
In its compounds, praseodymium occurs in the +2, +3 and / or +4 states. Praseodymium (IV) is a powerful oxidant, it instantly oxidizes water to oxygen (O2) or hydrochloric acid to chlorine. Thus in aqueous solution, the oxidation state +3 is the maximum.
The praseodymium salts are greenish yellow and, in solution, show a simple absorption spectrum in the visible region with a band in orange-yellow at 589-590 nm and three bands in the blue / purple region at 444, 468 and 482 nm approx. These positions vary slightly depending on the counterion. Praseodymium oxide when obtained by calcination of salts such as oxalate or carbonate in air is black in color (with brown-green reflections) and contains praseodymium +3 and +4 in a variable proportion depending on the reaction conditions. Its formula is conventionally written: Pr6O11.

Molecular compounds of praseodymium is mainly found in the oxidation state + III like any other lanthanide. Several examples contain a praseodymium (II) ion. 7 On the contrary, there is only one example of a molecular compound of Pr (IV).
Naturally, praseodymium is composed of a stable isotope, 141Pr; which makes it a monoisotopic element. Thirty eight radioisotopes were characterized, the most stable of which is 143Pr with a half-life of 13.57 days and 142Pr with a half-life of 19.12 hours. All other radioactive isotopes have a half-life less than 6 hours and the majority have a half-life less than 33 seconds. This element also has six nuclear isomers, the most stable being 138mPr (t½ 2.12 hours), 142mPr (t½ 14.6 minutes) and 134mPr (t½ 11 minutes).

The range of atomic weights for isotopes is 120.955 u (121Pr) to 158.955 u (159Pr). The first type of decay before the stable isotope, 141Pr, is electronic capture and the first type after this isotope is beta radioactivity. The first radioactivity product before 141Pr are the isotopes of element 58 (cerium) and the primary products after 141Pr are the isotopes of element 60 (neodymium).


  

rhenium    germanium    zirconium     cadmium     hafnium

      barium   lithium     beryllium     strontium     calcium

      Tantalum    gadolinium    samarium      yttrium   ytterbium

       Lutetium    praseodymium   holmium     erbium   thulium     dysprosium

       terbium   europium  lanthanum   cerium   neodymium  scandium 

         rubidium    cesium