Rubidium is a silver-white light metal with element symbol Rb. It is soft and waxy, and its chemical properties are more active than potassium. It is easy to release electrons under the action of light.
Rubidium plays a violent effect when it encounters water, generating hydrogen and rubidium hydroxide. Easy to react with oxygen to generate complex oxides. Because the reaction with water releases a lot of heat, hydrogen can be burned immediately. Pure metal rubidium is usually stored in sealed glass ampoules. Rubidium is widely used in energy, electronics, special glass, medicine and other fields
The nature of rubidium is between the potassium above it and the cesium below it. It is extremely lively. It loses its metallic luster immediately in the air, is violently oxidized by oxygen, and can cause rubidium to ignite spontaneously. The reaction with water is very violent, and it will explode even if it comes into contact with ice below -100°C.
The chemical reaction of rubidium is more intense than that of sodium and potassium, and it is easily oxidized in the air.
Rubidium has a lower melting point and hardness than potassium, and its chemical properties are more active. Rubidium explodes on the surface when it encounters water and dissolves in water to form an alkaline solution.
Rubidium easily releases electrons under the action of light, which can be used to make photoelectric tubes.
Frequency, time standard
The development of artificial earth satellite launch systems, navigation, launch vehicle navigation, missile systems, wireless communications, television broadcasting, transceiver split radars, global positioning systems (GPS) and other space technologies are accurate in the long and short-term of the frequency and time reference used The requirements for degree and stability are getting higher and higher. Due to the long-term stability of the rubidium radiation frequency, the resonance frequency of the 87Rb atom is determined by the frequency standard as the reference frequency. The rubidium atomic frequency standard used as a frequency standard and a time standard has the characteristics of low drift, high stability, radiation resistance, small size, light weight, and low power consumption. The highly accurate rubidium atomic clock has a travel time error of less than 1 second in 3.7 million years.
Taking advantage of the easy ionization of rubidium, a lot of research work has been done at home and abroad in the application of ion propulsion rockets, magnetic fluid power generation, thermionic conversion power generation, etc., and some important developments have been made.
Special glasses containing rubidium are currently one of the main markets for rubidium applications. Rubidium carbonate is often used as a special additive for the production of these glasses, which can reduce the conductivity of the glass, increase the stability and service life of the glass, and so on. Special glasses containing rubidium have been widely used in optical fiber communications and night vision devices.
Because rubidium atoms lose valence electrons very easily, the energy of visible light is enough to ionize the atoms, and the surface releases free electrons under the action of light electromagnetic radiation, showing excellent photoelectric properties, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strong chemical activity, making them in many There are very unique uses in the technical field. Usually rubidium compounds and alloys are important materials for the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, photoemission tubes, atomic clocks, television cameras and photomultipliers, as well as necessary materials for infrared technology, such as rubidium antimonide, rubidium telluride, rubidium cesium antimony alloy and so on. The photoemission tube using the rubidium-tellurium surface is often installed in different electronic detection and activation devices, and still has high sensitivity in a wide radiation spectrum .
Rubidium cesium antimony coatings are commonly used on the cathode of photomultiplier tubes for radiation detection equipment, medical imaging equipment, and night vision equipment. A series of automatic control can be realized by using these photocells and photocells.
Rubidium chloride and several other rubidium salts are used as density gradient media in the ultracentrifugation process of DNA and RNA; radioactive rubidium can be used for blood flow radioactive tracing; rubidium iodide is sometimes used instead of potassium iodide to treat goiter; some rubidium salts It can be used as a sedative, anti-shock preparation and epilepsy treatment after using arsenic-containing drugs.
In addition to the above application fields, rubidium and its compounds also have the following typical applications: rubidium and its alloys with potassium, sodium, and cesium can be used as getters for trace gases in vacuum tubes and to remove residual gases in high vacuum systems. Degassing agent. Rubidium is used as a chemical tracer to trace different kinds of production items. The decay of 87Rb to 86Sr has been widely used to identify the age of rocks and minerals