Manganese is an element of group VII and of period IV, and therefore of
the middle of the first series of so-called transition metals. The manganese
group includes for chemists manganese, technetium, rhenium and, incidentally,
the radioactive synthetic transactinide bohrium . The electronic structure of
the manganese atom, ie [Ar] 4s2 3d5 justifies a maximum oxidation state equal to
7 or VII . In nature, states II and III (the latter stabilized in the form of
complexes) are the most common. Manganese, taking 1.55 as the electronegativity
value of Pauling, is the most electropositive element and also the most abundant
of this seventh secondary group, it is much more reactive than rhenium, as in
their respective groups, that is to say the sixth and the eighth, chromium and
iron are tungsten and osmium. Technetium, one of the first elements produced by
man, is almost non-existent naturally.
While the simple metal body is not magnetic, the manganese sulfate compound body, in the form of colorless crystals accumulated in white powder, shows magnetic properties .
The relatively abundant manganese is in fourth place in the common metals of our modern societies, after iron, aluminum and copper .
The magnetic properties of pyrolusite, moreover most often intimately associated with iron oxide or magnetite, were already known, the Greco-Latin term of the masculine gender magnes, magnetis, most often magnetem or magnes lapis of the same origin, also denotes the magnet, "stone of magnesia" or "stone of magnet", which manifests a force or power, while the feminine term magnes (ia) adorned with a qualifier designates a particular matter. Magnesia nigra, this black mineral pigment body, inserted naturally or artificially in clays or ochres, has also been used since
copper aluminum lead Zinc tin nickel iron
magnesium bismuth manganese chromium cobalt titanium
Tungsten vanadium niobium indium molybdenum antimony