Vanadium has 26 known isotopes with a mass number between 40 and 65, and five nuclear isomers. Only one of these isotopes is stable, 51V, and represents 99.75% of the existing vanadium, the remaining 0.25% being made of 50V, a natural radioisotope with a particularly long half-life of 1.5 กม 1017 years (or 10 million times the age of the universe). Therefore, vanadium is a monoisotopic element, but not a mononucleidic element. Its standard atomic mass is 50.941 5 (1) u, very close to the isotopic mass of 51V.

Vanadium is a white, shiny, hard and ductile metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkaline compounds, as well as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. It oxidizes quickly at around 660 กใ C. Vanadium has good structural strength as well as a small cross section for interaction with fission neutrons, which makes it useful in nuclear applications. It is a metal which has both acidic and basic characteristics.

The common oxidation states of vanadium are +2, +3, +4 and +5. An experiment consisting in reducing ammonium vanadate by metallic zinc makes it possible to demonstrate by calorimetry the four oxidation states of vanadium.
A +1 oxidation state also exists, but it is more rare.

About 80% of the vanadium produced is used in ferro-vanadium and as an additive in certain steels. Other uses:

Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used in ceramics and as a catalyst; it is also one of those responsible for hot corrosion by gases (fluxing).
Vanadium is used to store electrical energy in flux batteries, which are still not widely used and are under development5 (2007).
Vanadium is used in certain alloys of stainless steel (ex: surgical steel).
Mixed with aluminum and titanium, it is used in the manufacture of jet engines and medical devices (e.g. orthopedic implants).
Vanadium compounds are used as catalysts for the synthesis of sulfuric acid, maleic anhydride or acrylic acid 6,7,8,9.
It is found as a pigment of vanadium blue.


   magnesium    bismuth   manganese   chromium    cobalt    titanium

    Tungsten    vanadium   niobium   indium     molybdenum     antimony

      rhenium    germanium    zirconium     cadmium     hafnium