Titanium is the chemical element with atomic number 22, with the symbol Ti. The titanium variant, although attested in French since 18727, is considered to be an incorrect anglicism.

Titanium belongs to group 4 of the periodic table (titanium group) with zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf) and rutherfordium (Rf), it is a transition metal. This element is found in many minerals, but its main sources are rutile and anatase.

The pure titanium body is a light, resistant metal, metallic white in appearance, which resists corrosion. It is mainly used in light and resistant alloys, and its oxide is used as a white pigment. The industrially interesting properties of titanium are its resistance to corrosion, often associated with resistance to erosion and fire, biocompatibility, but also its mechanical properties (resistance, ductility, fatigue, etc.) which in particular make it possible to shape thin and light pieces like sporting goods, but also orthopedic prostheses.

The very adherent and hard oxide layer explains the longevity of titanium parts subjected to the impacts of particles in suspension in fluids. This effect is amplified by the ability of this layer to regenerate. Erosion in seawater is increased by a higher flow or a smaller particle size.

Strength and ductility
Titanium is considered to be a metal with high mechanical resistance and good ductility under normal temperature conditions. Its specific resistance (tensile strength / density ratio) is, for example, higher than that of aluminum or steel. Its resistance is decreasing at temperature with a flatness between −25 กใ C and 400 กใ C. Below −50 กใ C, in cryogenic temperature ranges, its resistance increases and its ductility decreases greatly.

Wear and seizure
To date, no satisfactory solution has yet been developed. We mainly tried oxidation, nitriding, boriding and carburization. We encounter many technological difficulties of realization and adhesion. Let us add that the surface treatments of titanium, modifying the nature or the structure of the surface, are to be used only with the greatest caution and after a thorough study of their influence; they generally have a more or less pronounced harmful effect on resistance and fatigue.


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