The characteristics of ruthenium are largely paradoxical. Some chemists believe that the properties of the metal depend on ... the method of obtaining the platinoid. The problem is that there is still no effective way to remove impurities from ruthenium. Scientists and researchers lick their lips at the thought of the (theoretical) properties of the capricious platinoid. But so far, it has not been possible to obtain chemically pure ruthenium.
The gas absorption of the metal is amazing. One volume of metal can absorb more than 1500 volumes of hydrogen; with a little less appetite, he "eats" nitrogen, and will not give up some non-metals.
What is ruthenium
Chemical properties differ little from its platinum "counterparts".
Ruthenium is an “arrogant” element and does not associate with just anyone. Chemists will say that the metal is highly chemical resistant. Ruthenium ignores acids, alkalis, even aqua regia. The only halogen that the platinoid reacts with is fluorine.
In compounds, it exhibits oxidation states +3, +4, +6, +8, less often +1, + 2, +5, +7.
Ruthenium is a brittle metal, all attempts to carry out mechanical processing end in the same way - the destruction of the ingot. Scientists are encouraging - this is because the metal is not pure enough; remove impurities from it, and the properties of ruthenium will show themselves in full glory.
Metal reluctantly reveals its secrets; its melting (2334 ° C) and boiling points (4077 ° C) have recently been established. But the metal was discovered in 1844.
The crystal lattice is hexagonal.
Ay, ruthenium, where are you?
The prevalence of metal in the earth is regrettably low. The average content of ruthenium in the earth's crust is 0.0000005% of the mass of the Earth. The metal content is slightly higher in ultrabasic igneous rocks. There is a metal in sulfide copper-nickel ores.
Two minerals are known to contain ruthenium. This is laurite, ruthenium sulfide. Its chemical formula is RuS2, and ruthenarsenide (RuAs). They are rare in nature, of no industrial interest.
Platinoid is most often mined from primary or alluvial platinum and from polymetallic ores.
Ruthenium mining countries (in order of metal recoverable):
Divide the platinoids
Ruthenium is extracted from the waste of platinum production. Low-waste production, nice business.
A side advantage of using nuclear power is ... the extraction of ruthenium.
The source of energy at nuclear power plants are fuel rods and fuel assemblies (fuel elements that are assembled into long "pencils" - fuel assemblies).
Spent fuel assemblies not only pose a problem of storage and disposal. The fission products of the "filling" of fuel rods contain ruthenium, and in considerable quantities - more than 200 grams per ton of spent fuel.
The use of metal in the electrochemical and chemical industries is necessary and justified.
Ruthenium catalysts are used in spacecraft cleaning systems.
The metal is used in metallurgy as an alloying addition. Such alloys are necessary in the manufacture of turbines for jet vehicles, rocket parts operating at high temperatures.
The getter ability of ruthenium made it possible to invent technologies for producing graphene. It can be used as a supersensitive sensor in the detection of individual molecules of substances. A promising area is the use of graphenes in supercapacitors (ionistors). New types of photodetectors and LEDs await graphenes.
Will help ruthenium criminologists. From its compounds, a powder is obtained that can detect very faint traces of prints.
Adding metal to paint will allow the painted surface to absorb solar energy - another metal application, solar energy.
Ruthenium coating of products and materials lengthens their service life.
In general, scientists have high hopes for ruthenium.